The feast of Shavuot is the only feast mentioned in the Torah, which has no fixed date. Its time connected to the feast of Matsot.
The commandment in the Torah is as follows:
“And ya shall count unto you from the morrow after the sabbath,from the day that ye brought the sheaf of the wave offering; seven sabbaths shall be complete; Even unto the morrow after the seventh sabbath shal ye number fifty days; and shall offer a new meat offering unto the Lord. (Leviticus 23: 15-16)”
“Seven weeks shalt thou number unto thee: begin to number the seven weeks from [such time as] thou beginnest [to put] the sickle to the corn.And thou shalt keep the feast of weeks unto the LORD ” (Deut 16:9)
The Samaritans Start to count the fifty days, right after the sabbath day that falls during the seven days of the Feast of Matsot. In this way , they follow the three principles bounded with this feast, and as they clearly reflect from the verse “Even unto the morrow after the seventh sabbath shal ye number fifty days”:
1. It must take place right after fifty days of the counting.
2. These fifty days must contain seven Sabbaths.
3. These fifty days must contain seven complete weeks.
That is why the counting must start right after Sabbath, and the feast will always fall on Sunday.
The Sabbath after the Passover Sacrifice is called the Matzoth festival Sabbath. On the following day after the Sabbath, the Samaritans start counting fifty days of the Omer.
Each Sabbath of the Seven Sabbaths of the Omer, represents one of the stops , that were made by the children of Israel during their journey to the land of Canaan, Israel. The Sabbath of that week, is dedicated to the memorial ot the events, connected to the station, by adding the appropriate verses from the Torah to the regular prayer.
- The first Sabbath is The Sabbath of the Sea, which represents the crossing of Red Sea by the people of Israel. According to Samaritan tradition, this event took place on the night following the Sabbath.
- The second Sabbath is The Sabbath of Mirra -(Marah- “And when they came to Marah, they couldn’t drink of the waters of Marah, for they were bitter: therefore the name of it was called Marah” (Exodus 15:23)
- The third Sabbath is The Sabbath of Eilem (Elim) -”And they came to Elim, and in Elim there are twelve wells of water, and threescore and ten palm trees: and they encamped there by the waters”. (Exodus 15:27)
- The forth Sabbath is The Sabbath of Ha Man -” Then said the LORD unto Moses, Behold, I will rain bread from heaven for you; and the people shall go out and gather a certain rate every day, that I may prove them, whether they will walk in my law, or no.” (Exodus 16:4)
- The fifth Sabbath is The Sabbath of S’or (‘Tsor’= Rock of Horeb) -Behold, I will stand before thee there upon the rock in Horeb; and thou shalt smite the rock, and there shall come water out of it, that the people may drink (Exodus 17:6).
- The sixth Sabbath is The Sabbath of Amalek -Then came Amalek, and fought with Israel in Rephidim. (Exodus 17:8) This Sabbath is dedicated to the defeat of Amalek (one of the strongest people in the time of the bible) by the People of Israel and with the help of God. A special songs and poems, concerning that war,
are added to the prayer. Usually the woman in this Sabbath, will dress red cloths, as a memorial to the blood of Israelite’s warrior, were killed in the war.
- The seventh Sabbath is The Sabbath of Debarem (Commandments) – The Sabbath is dedicated to the Ten Commandments (‘Debarem’ – Commandments in ancient Hebrew) were given by God to the people of Israel on Mt. Sinai .
On the forty-fourth day is ‘Yom Kalla’ – The Day of Assembly. On this day the Samaritans used in the past, to visit the holy sites at the area of Mt. Gerizim: The Eternity Hill, Joseph’s Tomb, the burial places of the Elazar, Itamar Phinehas, his son Avishua and the seventy Elders.
On the next day, (Tuesday) in the evening, the Samaritans gather in the synagogues for a special prayer, to mention the day before the Day of Revelation at Mount Sinai.
The following day is the ‘Yom Makrata’ –Day of the Revelations at Mount Sinai. from midnight , to the following evening, the prayers are devoted to the remembrance of the Revelation at mount Sinai.
On the next day ,the Samaritans move to their homes on Mt Gerizim.
The sabbath of this week is called The Sabbath Of The Ten Commandments.
The seventh day is the festival of Shavuoth (Pentecost) , ends the fifty days of the Omer, and also contains the second pilgrimage to the holy sites on the top of Mt. Gerizim.